Gynecologic Oncology

To surgically diagnose and treat malignant and noncancerous (benign) disorders of the female reproductive system, gynecologic oncologists offer an integrated approach. These include vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, pelvic masses, ovarian, endometriosis, fibroids, and cervical cancer.

Innovative Methods Of Therapy in Gynecologic Oncology

You will discuss a wide selection of cutting-edge, efficient treatment alternatives with your doctor. Gynecologic oncology specialists at our clinic are skilled in intricate robotic and laparoscopic techniques, fertility-preserving surgery, and risk-lowering measures for hereditary cancer syndromes:

Advanced laparoscopic surgery in Gynecologic Oncology: This successful minimally invasive procedure has been proven to reduce discomfort, lengthen hospital stays, and speed up healing. Hysterectomy and myomectomy are less invasive alternatives to laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation. Most women return to their regular activities in 7 days or less, and there is no cutting of the uterine tissue involved.

Robotic surgery in Gynecologic Oncology: The benefits of this method are similar to those of advanced laparoscopy, and it enables surgeons to do operations with more accuracy and precision while causing minor damage to surrounding tissues.

Radiation treatment is given intravenously (IORT) in Gynecologic Oncology: When no other alternatives for therapy are available, this radiation method is used to treat advanced malignancies that are localized but have spread from the initial tumor location. During surgery, a strong radiation dosage is delivered directly to the cancer location using IORT equipment, which is carried into the operating room.

Chemotherapy is given intraperitoneally: This method of treating ovarian cancer includes administering chemotherapy directly into the abdomen. According to National Cancer Institute studies, intraperitoneal chemotherapy has a more significant survival benefit than intravenous chemotherapy alone.

HIPEC Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

Certain malignancies of the abdomen are treated with the two-step hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) surgical technique. Malignant tumors are surgically removed, and the remaining cancerous cells are subsequently eradicated by administering hot chemotherapy medications directly within the belly.

What Is A HIPEC Operation?

High dosages of chemotherapy are injected into the abdomen during a HIPEC procedure to treat cancer that has spread from the original organ. It might be challenging to use conventional chemotherapy to treat abdominal malignancies that have progressed to the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum). Having HIPEC surgery is a more efficient choice for therapy.

What Kinds Of Cancer Are Treated With HIPEC Surgery?

Abdominal illnesses, fluid retention, and malignancies can all be treated with HIPEC surgery. The most typical malignancies treated by HIPEC are as follows:

  • Liver cancer
  • Mesothelioma
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Peritoneal cancer
  • Adrenal cancer
  • Appendix cancer
  • Colon and rectal cancer
  • Gastric (stomach) cancer

Cytoreductive Surgery

There are two phases to HIPEC surgery in Gynecologic Oncology: The initial step in HIPEC surgery is cytoreductive surgery. Your surgeon will perform an abdominal incision while you are sedated to see any apparent malignant tumors and damaged tissue.

HIPEC Protocol

The HIPEC technique is the second stage. Your surgeon will introduce a catheter with the chemotherapy medications, which are pushed into your abdominal cavity after removing any obvious tumors and diseased material from the abdomen. The chemotherapy medicines are heated and pumped into your belly for one to two hours using catheters attached to a perfusion machine. Before closing the incision, your surgeon will drain the abdomen of any residual chemotherapy and clean it with a salt solution.

The procedure’s duration may change depending on how far the cancer has gone throughout the abdomen. Surgery may take longer to treat cancer in an advanced stage.

Would You Recommend HIPEC Surgery For Me?

This depends upon the location of cancer’s genesis and the extent to which it spreads. Your doctor will decide if you are fit enough to have the surgery.

What Advantages Can HIPEC Procedures Offer?

High dosages of chemotherapy are administered during HIPEC surgery straight into the belly, where they are more effective than more conventional forms of chemotherapy. This novel method can enhance long-term results and provide more therapy alternatives for patients with advanced-stage or incurable cancer.

Cancer Screening in Gynecologic Oncology

Cancer screening uses various techniques, including imaging, DNA analysis, blood, and urine testing, and other assays, to find cancer before symptoms manifest. You must balance any risks with the advantages of screening in terms of preventing cancer, detecting it early, and receiving treatment.

Some tests can aid in the early detection of cancer. It’s known as cancer screening.

Cancer screening’s primary objectives are:

  • Decrease the number of people who pass away from the illness.
  • Eliminate all cancer-related fatalities.
  • Minimize the number of persons who get the disease.


Gynecologic Oncology

Which Malignancies Are Subject To Screening Exams?

There are specific screening procedures for some cancer types. There is currently no reliable screening technique for other kinds. Research is now being done to create new cancer screening assays.

  • Cervical cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Head and neck cancers
  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Skin cancer

What Are The Benefits Of Cancer Testing in Gynecologic Oncology?

Cancer screening tests are intended to discover cancer before symptoms appear or when it would be simpler to treat effectively. An efficient screening test is one that;

  • Early cancer detection
  • Lowers the likelihood that someone who undergoes routine screening will pass away from cancer
  • It has more potential advantages than disadvantages (risks associated with screening tests include physical harm such as bleeding or other physical damage, falsely positive or falsely negative test results, and overdiagnosis, which is the diagnosis of cancers that would not have caused problems and did not require treatment).


Colposcopy in Gynecologic Oncology

A colposcopy is used to carefully inspect your cervix, vagina, and vulva for illness symptoms. Your doctor utilizes a unique tool known as a colposcope during colposcopy. If your Pap lab tests are unusual, your doctor could advise colposcopy. During your colposcopy procedure, a tissue sample might be taken for laboratory analysis (biopsy) when your doctor discovers an abnormal region of cells.

You can feel anxious before your colposcopy procedure. You could feel more at ease if you are prepared for your colposcopy.

Why Is It Made?

Your doctor could advise colposcopy if an abnormality were found during a pelvic exam or Pap test.

A colposcopy is a tool for diagnostic:

  • warts on the genitalia
  • cervix inflammation (cervicitis)
  • cervical tissue malignant changes
  • vaginal tissue malignant changes
  • vulva malignant changes



What To Anticipate?

When having a colposcopy

Colposcopies are often performed in a doctor’s office and last 10 to 20 minutes. Like a pelvic exam or Pap test, you will lie on your back on a table with your feet in support.

A metal speculum is inserted into your vagina by the doctor. For your doctor to see your cervix, the speculum holds open the walls of your vagina.

Your doctor places a colposcope, a specialized magnification device, a few inches from your vulva. The next step is for your doctor to flash a bright light into your vagina while using the colposcope as a pair of binoculars to examine the area.

Following The Colposcopy

You wouldn’t be subject to any activity limits after your colposcopy if your doctor didn’t take a biopsy sample. You can feel mild spotting or minimal vaginal bleeding in the following day or two.

To contain any blood or discharge, use a pad. Tampons, douching, and sexual acts should be avoided for a week following your test or for as much as your doctor recommends.


Inquire with your doctor about the anticipated timing of the findings before you leave your colposcopy session. Ask your doctor for a phone number you may contact if you don’t hear back from them within a specific time. Depending on the results of your colposcopy, you may require more testing or medical care.

Laparoscopic Surgery

A form of surgery called laparoscopy enables a surgeon to reach the abdomen’s (or “tummy”) and pelvis’ interior without making significant skin incisions. Keyhole surgery and minimally invasive surgery are other names for this method.

When Is Laparoscopy Performed?

Laparoscopy can diagnose numerous illnesses that arise inside the abdomen or pelvis. This could also be used to perform surgical procedures, such as removing an unhealthy or diseased organ or a tissue sample for further investigation (biopsy).

Most frequently, laparoscopy is applied in the following ways:

  • The study and care of illnesses affecting the female reproductive system are known as gynecology.
  • The study and care of disorders affecting the digestive system are known as gastroenterology.
  • The study of and care for urinary system conditions is known as urology.

How Is Laparoscopy Performed in Gynecologic Oncology?

Laparoscopy is carried out under general anesthetic so you won’t feel any pain during the procedure. The surgeon makes one or more small incisions in the abdomen during laparoscopy. These allow the surgeon to insert the laparoscope, small surgical tools, and a tube used to pump gas into the stomach. This makes it easier for the surgeon to look around and operate. After the procedure, the gas is let out of your abdomen, the incisions are closed using stitches, and a dressing is applied.

You can often go home on the same day of your laparoscopy, although you may need to stay in the hospital overnight.

Identifying Ailments

Using non-invasive techniques, such as an ultrasound scan, computerized tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, it is frequently feasible to identify a problem. In some instances, using a laparoscope to examine the damaged body part directly is the only method to confirm a diagnosis.

Nowadays, laparoscopies are often performed to examine specific symptoms and identify a variety of illnesses. For instance, they might be utilized for:

  • A bacterial infection of the female upper genital system, including the womb, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is a pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  • Endometriosis is a condition in which fragments of the endometrium, the lining of the womb, are discovered elsewhere.
  • An unwanted pregnancy occurs outside of the womb.
  • A fluid-filled sac called an ovulation cyst appears on a woman’s ovary.
  • Noncancerous tumors that grow in or around the womb are known as fibroids (uterus)
  • infertility in women
  • Boys born without one or both testicles in their scrotum are said to have undescended testicles, a frequent childhood ailment.
  • A painful appendix swelling is known as appendicitis (a small pouch connected to the large intestine)
  • abdominal or pelvic pain without cause

How Is It Carried Out?

You won’t remember the laparoscopy since it is done when you are asleep and under general anesthesia (Gynecologic Oncology). Frequently, you may return home the same day.

Healing Times in Gynecologic Oncology

Everybody’s recovery following a laparoscopy takes a varied amount of time. It depends on several variables, including the intent of the treatment (whether it was performed to diagnose or treat an illness), your overall health, and if any complications arise. After a laparoscopy to detect a disease, you can likely return to regular activities in 5 days.

Depending on the type of therapy, there may be a recovery period following a laparoscopy to treat a problem. After a quick procedure, like removing an appendix, you can return to your regular activities in three weeks. The healing period after major surgery, such as deducting your kidney or ovaries due to malignancy, might be up to 12 weeks.


When To Consult A Doctor in Gynecologic Oncology

Typically, it is advised that you have company during the first 24 hours following surgery (Gynecologic Oncology). This is only in case you see any signs of a problem, like:

  • 38C or higher for the high temperature
  • chills
  • strong or persistent vomit
  • Rising stomachache
  • Surrounding your wounds, there may be redness, discomfort, swelling, bleeding, or discharge.
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • One of your legs hurts and swells.
  • Urination that causes a burning or stinging feeling

Urinary Incontinence (Gynecologic Oncology)

The unintended passing of urine is known as urinary incontinence. Millions of individuals are estimated to be impacted by this widespread issue.

Urinary incontinence comes in a variety of forms, such as:

  • When your bladder is under stress, such as when you cough or laugh, stress incontinence occurs when pee comes out.
  • Urine escapes as you have a sudden, strong desire to urinate or shortly after.
  • Overflow incontinence (chronic urine retention) is the frequent leakage resulting from not emptying your bladder.
  • Total incontinence is when your bladder cannot hold any pee, causing you to leak or pass urine continually.
  • Additionally, stress urinary incontinence and urge incontinence can coexist.

When To Visit A Doctor in Gynecologic Oncology

You might find it awkward to bring up incontinence with your doctor. However, it’s crucial to seek medical care if incontinence occurs frequently or negatively impacts your quality of life since urinary incontinence may:


  • your ability to engage in certain hobbies and social interactions
  • negatively affect your standard of living
  • The elderly are more likely to collapse as they race to the bathroom.
  • Provide evidence of a more serious underlying problem.

Treating Incontinence Of The Bladder in Gynecologic Oncology

Non-operative therapies

A doctor may first recommend some straightforward actions to determine if they assist in alleviating your problems.

These may consist of the following:

  • lifestyle adjustments, including reducing coffee and alcohol intake and weight loss
  • exercising your pelvic floor muscles while squeezing them to make them stronger
  • Bladder training, which teaches you how to delay the desire for urination till after passing pee
  • Utilizing incontinence supplies like absorbent pads and portable urinals may also help you.

Medication may be advised if you are still unable to control your symptoms.


Surgical Procedures

Having surgery is another option. Your kind of incontinence will determine the methods that are best for you.

Surgery can treat stress incontinence by relieving pressure on the bladder or strengthening the muscles that regulate urine, such as during a sling surgery.

Expanding the bladder or implanting a device that activates the nerves that control the detrusor muscles are two surgical procedures used to treat urge incontinence.

Is Incontinence Something I Will Have My Entire Life?

Incontinence may occasionally become a temporary problem when the underlying reason is resolved. When you have a problem like a urinary tract infection, this is frequently the case (UTI). Once a UTI is treated, frequent urine and leakage issues are usually resolved. This also applies to certain pregnant women who have problems with bladder control. Many people’s problems resolve in the weeks following birth. However, other reasons for incontinence are chronic and linked to diseases requiring ongoing care.

Incontinence may last longer if you have a chronic illness like diabetes or multiple sclerosis. In certain circumstances, discussing the best management strategies with your healthcare physician to prevent life-interfering incontinence is crucial.