What Is Gynecology?

Gynecology is a branch of human medicine dealing with developing and treating female sexual and reproductive organs and urinary tract organs such as the kidneys and bladder. The counterpart for men would be orology or urology, where urologists also treat female patients. In a broader sense, gynecology also includes the treatment of diseases of the female breast, including the health check (mammography).

Methods Of Gynecological Examination

The gynecological examination serves both for therapy, diagnosis, and prevention of diseases of the female organism. As a rule, this examination includes a consultative discussion and a vaginal exam. The gynecological examination should usually be a preventive examination, including the early detection of malignant breast and uterine cancers and advice on sexuality, pregnancy, menstrual bleeding, and experiences of abuse.


When Is A Gynecological Examination Performed?

Although such an examination should always be considered a preventive measure, the following symptoms may lead a patient to consult a gynecologist.

Pain, itching, and burning during urination or sexual intercourse

Unnatural vaginal discharge

Too much or too much bleeding may be associated with severe pain

Nodes, indurations, painful chest pains


And for the children:

If the bleeding occurs before the menstrual period.

Presumed genital malformations.

If there is a suspicion of abuse.

The gynecologist can mainly determine the symptoms in children by diagnosing the eyes without touching the genitals.


How Does The Gynecological Examination Work?

Typically, the gynecologist will ask the patient for a urine sample before starting the examinations. This allows it to be based on germs, blood, and signs of inflammation, in case they are present. In addition, they can easily be detected in the urine if the patient is pregnant. After the emptying of the urine, the actual examination is performed.


At the beginning of each examination, the gynecologist first wants to know more about current complaints and specific incidents. He also wants to take the patient’s and family’s medical history to rule out genetic risk factors for breast and cervical cancer. He also asks the patient questions about the following:


Contraception or desire for contraception and their sexuality?

Strength, duration, and regularity of periods?

Intermittent bleeding or unusual vaginal discharge?

Is the patient taking any medication?

Are there relevant metabolic diseases? (e.g: hyper- / hypothyroidism)


After the medical history, the physical examination begins. For this purpose, the patient exposes her abdomen and sits on a unique gynecological chair, her back is slightly tilted backward, and her legs take up space on the sofas provided. Now the gynecologist can look at the external genitalia of the woman and already recognize abnormalities by the diagnosis of the eye. He mainly looks for swelling, redness, and inflammation. Then he scans the lymph nodes in the inguinal region to rule out thickening.


Rectal And Vaginal Gynecological Examination

The gynecologist uses the so-called speculum to palpate the vagina. He gently introduces it into the woman’s vagina, spreads it with a lubricant, and lays it so that it has a good view of the vaginal mucosa and the cervix. If the gynecologist wants to examine the mucosa in more detail, he can use a colposcope, a small magnifying glass with a light source. To detect cancers at an early stage, he can also take a cotton swab in the border area between the vagina and the cervix and do the so-called Pap test (During the Pap test, the gynecologist examines the cells in the border area between the vagina and the cervix microbiologically to changes and degeneration, but he classifies it in seven stages).


After examining the speculum, the gynecologist proceeds to the bimanual examination: he looks at the vagina and discusses its extensibility, its indurations, and the modifications of the surface condition. Afterward, a hand touches the abdominal wall so that he can feel the uterus and notice changes.


From age 50, the rectal examination is also part of the health check. The gynecologist examines the areas of the rectum and its immediate vicinity.

Very often, the check-up is done with an ultrasound scan. This one has a particular shape and can easily be inserted into the vagina. This allows the gynecologist to evaluate the lining of the uterine mucosa, determine the phase of the cycle and evaluate the ovaries and pelvic spaces.


The gynecologist then examines the patient’s chest. He scans the entire breasts and the axillary region and examines the lymph nodes for thickening and induration. The doctor must also explain to the patient how to look her breast to detect any possible changes so that she can consult a specialist as soon as possible. Patients, who reach the age of 50, are also entitled to a breast X-ray and mammography.


Which Medical Specialists And Clinics Specialize In Gynecology?

Anyone who needs an expert in gynecology wants the best medical care. Therefore, the patient wonders where he can find the best gynecological clinic.

Since this question cannot be answered objectively and a reputable doctor would never claim to be the best, we can rely only on a doctor’s experience. The more treatments or surgeries he performs, the more experienced he becomes in his specialty.

Thus, specialists in gynecology specialize in gynecology, specializing in some gynecological regions. Their experience and many years of work make them the right contact for gynecological or obstetric diseases.