Information about Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is an independent medical field specializing in the treatment of eye diseases. Ophthalmology specialists can work in eye clinics or run an ophthalmology practice as general practitioners. In recent years, individual specializations have appeared in the field of ophthalmology.

  • Refractive surgery
  • Anterior segment of the eye
  • posterior segment
  • Orbit Specialists
  • retinology

What are the eye diseases treated by eye clinics and ophthalmologists?

Eye diseases are diseases of the lacrimal glands and eye skin, including the eyelid, lens, optic nerve, eye muscles and eye cavity (orbit).

The most common disease in the population, ametropia, is caused by poor refraction of light in the eye by the cornea or lens.

In addition to ametropia, age-related retinal diseases, conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and cataracts are the most common. Other diseases of the body (diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Basedow’s disease

Myopia, hyperopia, and presbyopia

A distinction is made between myopia and hyperopia, which results from an incorrect relationship between the length of the eye and the refractive power of the lens. As a result, the light rays entering the eye are no longer focused on the retina, but are already gathered in front of or behind a point. Hyperopia is, above all, a natural phenomenon of the aging process.

If the cornea’s refractive power is altered (astigmatism), we speak of a corneal curvature in which the light rays are refracted in different directions. This results in a projection on the retina, which is not like a regular dot, but rod-shaped.

Laser eye surgery for defective vision

In addition to correcting visual defects with glasses and contact lenses, laser eye surgery has been available for almost 20 years. The laser eye procedure has been perfected over the years. Today, lasers and surgical methods are very safe and gentle for the patient. The following laser methods for ametropia correction have become established today:

  • Femto-LASIK
  • ReLEx® smile

Implantable contact lenses for hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism

Laser eye surgery is not possible for all patients. This is related to the severity of the ametropia. Implantable contact lenses offer a good alternative for vision without glasses. There are two types of intraocular lenses:

  • anterior chamber lenses
  • posterior chamber lenses

A detailed preliminary examination by an ophthalmologist will determine which type of lens is the optimal therapy in individual cases.

Age-related retinal diseases (retinal detachment)

Typically, the retina of the choroid behind it adheres loosely. During old age or as a result of injuries, tiny cracks can develop in the retina through which fluid can penetrate the space between the sensory retina and the choroid and enlarge it. The retina loses its function in the areas of detachment.

Symptoms are flashes of light perceived in the affected eye, loss of visual field, and ultimately blindness of the eye. Diabetes mellitus promotes retinal shrinkage and the formation of holes, which can lead to retinal detachment.

Glassy opacity

If the vitreous body becomes cloudy, the affected patients develop streaks in the vitreous body. These are then seen as spots, shadows, or flashes of light. Although glassy opacity is harmless, it can seriously impair the quality of life. Therapeutic procedures include vitreolysis or laser vitreolysis. Affected patients do not have to accept their fate but can obtain specific information from our ophthalmologists about the process that suits them.


In summary, damage to the optic nerve is called glaucoma. The most important risk factor is too high pressure in the eye. This intraocular pressure is caused by the aqueous humor produced in the eye, which washes around the lens and flows out again through the veins. In a healthy state, the aqueous humor performs nourishing and detoxifying functions and maintains the eyeball’s shape.

If the outflow of aqueous humor is hindered by pathological changes, the pressure in the eye increases. It is assumed that the excessive pressure in the eye limits the blood flow to the optic nerve and damages it.

The first symptoms are visual field failures, which means that the areas of the perceived space can no longer be perceived. Since vision failures only occur after the onset of optic nerve damage, early detection of glaucoma is especially important to prevent vision loss or blindness.

Today, state-of-the-art therapeutic options are available for the treatment of glaucoma to reduce the increased intraocular pressure. In addition to gentle laser procedures, micro-implants or various surgical procedures such as canaloplasty can also be used to treat glaucoma effectively.


Cataracts are the most age-related opacity of the lens. The course often creeps (1-10 years) but can progress faster depending on the cause. It is estimated that about half of the blindness in the world is due to cataracts.

Risk factors for the development of cataracts are malnutrition, UV light, high myopia, smoking, alcoholism, and systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Corticosteroid-based therapies can also promote the development of cataracts.

A clouding of the lens leads to a deterioration in vision, noticeable in activities such as reading and driving. The irregular scattering of the incident light also leads to glare. The contrast and colors are perceived weaker, and the perception of double images and blurred contours can occur. Today, cataract surgery is a routine intervention in eye surgery. Laser procedures make the operation smoother, safer, more accurate, and more gentle.

Diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina as a result of diabetes mellitus)

A general consequence of diabetes mellitus is the damage and constriction of blood vessels and, as a result, a lack of supply to the affected body region. Particularly thin blood vessels are affected very early.

In the case of diabetic retinopathy, the lack of oxygen (ischemia) leads to a lack of oxygen in the tissues of the retina and tissue destruction. Diabetic retinopathy is an age-related risk factor for retinal detachment.